472 CE – Germanic Visigoth under Euric defeated last bastion of Roman army and conquered roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis (northern Iberia).
Previously Visigoth sacked Rome in 410 CE and the Romans in Iberia already weakened by successive invasion of Germanic tribes such as Vandals, Suebi and Alani in previous decades.
476 CE – Romulus Augustalus, The last Western Roman Emperor was deposed, ‘Barbarian’ Odoacer became King of Italy.
507 CE – Franks underclovis defeated Visigoth near Vogladensis (Vouillé) and ousted visigoth in Gaul (France).
583 CE – Visigoth king Liuvigild crushed rebellion by Hermenegild who alligned himself with Eastern Romans.
581 CE – Visigoth under Liuvigild defeated the Native Vascones (Basques) and captured Vascones Capital, Pompelo (Pamplona).
585 CE – Visigoth conquered Germanic Suebi Kingdom who controlled Gallicia & Lusitania ( northwest Spain & Portugal)
610 CE – Toletum (Toledo) became capital of the Visigoth Kingdom after they were ousted from Tolosates (Toulouse).
624 CE – Visigoth defeated Eastern Roman Garrison in coastal southern spain, whole Iberian peninsula under Visigoth control.
694 CE – Visigoth king, Egica, passed law to enslave Jews residing in Iberia to be enslaved and their children taken from their parents in the 17th Council of Toledo..
698 CE – Umayyad army defeated Eastern Roman army in north Africa and re-captured Carthage.
Just centuries before, the Eastern Romans just taken north africa from Germanic Vandals during Justinian I era.
710 CE – Roderic usurp Visigoth throne against Achila II, King wittiza’s son and control most of Iberian peninsula.
710 CE – Count Julian, former roman and now visigoth commander in Septem (Ceuta, nortern morocco) dishonored by Visigoth king Roderic.
Musa ibn Nusair and Count Julian made alliance to topple Roderic in Iberia and provided Umayyad with military intelligence and ships.
711 CE – Umayyad army commanded by Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad landed on Iberian peninsula with small forces of 1700 men & horses.
In previous millennia north african Carthaginian and levantines Phoenician already settled in Iberia before being ousted by the Romans.
Visigoth king who still subduing the rebellious Vascones (Basque) in Pompelo (Pamplona) soon turned south to counter Umayyad incursion.
712 CE – Tariq receive reinforcement and facing Visigoth main army near Guadalete river.
Outnumbered Umayyad forces under Tariq successfuly defeated Visigoth army who has been plagued by distrust following recent civil war.
Visigoth King, Roderic was killed in the battle. Visigoth capital of Toletum (Toledo) fell to the Umayyad Armies.
Mérida was captured by Umayyad from the Visigoth.
SeJewish population in Iberia who has been exiled by the romans in 70th CE and persecuted by Visigoth helps the conquest of Iberia by Umayyad armies.
Umayyad appointed officials in captured cities, but former christian still lives by their own Visigothic Law. so does the Shepardic Jews. Both were subject of taxation (jizya).
the remaining Visigoth forces retreated to mountainous northern spain.
713 CE – Visigoth count Theudimer was defeated by Umayyad forces under ibn Musa, Theudimer then signed allegiance to the Umayyad in exchage of his autonomy over his land around Murcia.
The last visigoth King Ardo, retreated to septimania (southeast france).
714 CE – Governor Musa ibn Nusair led umayyad army overrun western Basque and Cantabrian mountains.
Umayyad only kept small garrison in the Basque region while Vascones (Basque) were kept intact and autonomously ruled themselves.
Most of the town captured by Umayyad was kept intact and inhabitants were respected of their culture & religion.
Hispano-Roman Count Cassius became Umayyad client and established Banu Qasi (Cassius Clan) in northern Iberia.
716 CE – Coduba, former carthaginian city of Kart-Juba became capital of Umayyad Al-Andalus Province and called Qurtuba. Subordinate to the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, Levant.
717 CE – Umayyad forces reach the Pyrenees, and conducted raid toward visigoth bastion in Septimania (southeast France).
718 CE – Visigoth count Pelagius revolted in 718 and defeated Umayyad forces in battle of Covadonga (Northern Iberia).